2020 Oklahoma Peanut Variety Trials
2020 Progress Made Possible Through Oklahoma Peanut Commission and National Peanut Board Support
- Performance of runner varieties depended on location, but averages across locations in 2020 indicate that cultivar Lariat was the top entry in value per acre.
- Significant differences among Spanish entries across locations and years indicated OLé had the top yield, but the small-seeded, runner-type cultivars AT98-99 and Span17 were the leaders in value per acre.
- No significant differences were noted in Virginia entry yields across locations and years (2019-2020), but numerically, Contender and the breeding line NCEX17 led the entries in value per acre.
- Pod size distribution analysis reported for all variety trial locations, as well as the Caddo Co. Uniform Peanut Performance Test (UPPT), indicated that several breeding lines tested had significant increases in percent super jumbo pods when compared to cultivars currently in production.
Peanut production in Oklahoma is generally located in three geographical regions across the state: Southwestern, West Central and Far West. Each region differs from the others in environmental and biological stressors that affect crop production, so the same peanut cultivar will likely perform differently in each growing region. Therefore, the Oklahoma Peanut Variety Trials are conducted in each region annually and are designed to test the performance of commonly grown cultivars and potential cultivar releases against each other. Grades in 2020 were down from past years due to an unusually cool late season. Overall, yields were within averages from past years across locations. Results of these annual trials can serve as a guide for producers when choosing a cultivar to plant.
Variety Trial Methods
All entries (cultivars and advanced breeding lines) in the Oklahoma Peanut Variety Trials were high-oleic except for the Virginia-type cultivar Jupiter. The following entries were included in all locations in 2020: 18 runner types: Cultivars ACI080, ACI476, ACI3321, Georgia 09B, Georgia 14N, Lariat, Tamrun OL11 and Webb and breeding lines ARSOK R47A, ARSOK R90-12, ARSOK R91-2, ARSOK R92-13, ARSOK R93-1, ARSOK R93-10, ARSOK R94-4, ARSOK 95-1, ARSOK R96-7 and ARSOK R96-8; six Spanish types: Cultivars AT98-99, OLé, Tamnut OL06, Schubert and Span17 and breeding lines ARSOK S88-2 and 19 Virginia types: Cultivars ACI 351, Contender, Jupiter and VENUS and breeding lines NCEX1, NCEX2, NCEX7, NCEX17, NCEX20, NCEX22, ARSOK V-98, ARSOK V99, ARSOK V100-1, ARSOK V100-2, ARSOK V101-1, ARSOK V103-1, ARSOK V103-3, ARSOK V103-4 AND ARSOK V103-5.
All variety trials were conducted under an extensive pest management program. The objective was to prevent as much outside influence from pest pressures (weed, disease and insect) on yield and grade as possible. The interaction between variety and location was significant, so the results were separated by location. Averages across locations and years were included to give producers a better estimate of line performance. Since the varieties and advanced lines response differed by location, growers may find the data for the county closest to their location to be the most useful in selecting a variety or varieties to grow. All test plots were planted using two 36-inch rows that were 15 feet long. Plots were seeded at a rate of five seeds/row foot (139,392 seeds per acre). Trials were conducted using randomized, complete block design with four replications. The entire plot was dug and then thrashed two to three days later. Peanuts were placed in a dryer until moisture reached 10%. Percent total sound mature kernels [% total sound mature kernels (TSMK)] were determined on a 200 g sample from each plot. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance (LSD) were analyzed through the statistical analysis system (SAS) (ver. 9.1).
Value/acre was determined by converting estimated plot yields to tons/acre and using the 2019 contract price values for each market-type ($475 for all types). No adjustments were made for damaged kernels or concealed damage. Virginia $/A values may be underestimated, as grade is not as large a factor for in-shell peanuts; however, the extra-large kernels (ELK) bonus was added in the final value/A figure. Calculations of $/A are based on yield and grade only and do not include possible input costs. The following formula was used: $/A = yield (tons/A)*contract price ($/ton)*grade.
Least significant differences (LSD) are listed at the bottom of all but the performance summary tables. Differences between varieties are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given variety out yields another variety by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 95% sure the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability the difference is due to chance alone. For example, if variety X is 500 pounds per acre higher in yield than variety Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 500 or less. If the LSD is 500 or greater, then we are less confident that variety X really is higher yielding than variety Y under the conditions of the test.
The coefficient of variation (CV value) listed at the bottom of each table is used as a measure of the precision of the experiment. Lower CV values will generally relate to lower experimental error in the trial. Uncontrollable or immeasurable variations in soil fertility, soil drainage and other environmental factors contribute to greater experimental error and higher CV values. Results reported here should be representative of what might occur throughout the state but would be most applicable under environmental management conditions similar to those of the trials. The relative yields of all peanut varieties are affected by crop management and by environmental factors, including soil-type, summer conditions, soil moisture, disease and insects.
2020 Caddo County Peanut Variety Trial
- Location: Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Cobb
- Date Planted: 5/19/2020
- Date Dug: 10/12/2020
- Date Threshed: 10/15-26/2020
The trial was planted on May 19, 2020. A conventional till seedbed was used and managed for foliar and soil-borne diseases throughout the season. Average yield for the runner test was 4962 pounds per acre, and average grade was 70% TSMK (Table 1) with entries Lariat and ACI080 and breeding line ARSOK R93-1 having higher yields compared to other genotypes tested. Statistical differences in yield and grade were seen among entries, but overall grades were slightly lower than in immediate past years.
Among the Spanish entries tested, the average yield and grade were 4162 pounds per acre and 70% TSMK, respectively. In Caddo County, no statistical differences among entries were reported for yield, but cultivar Span17 had the highest numerical yield at 4439 pounds per acre. The small-seeded runner growth habit cultivars AT98-99 and Span17 are expected to have higher yields and grades, both grading highest at 71% and 74% TSMK, respectively.
Entries in the Virginia test averaged 4519 pounds per acre with an average grade of 66% TSMK. Statistical differences were reported for yield and grade. Among the breeding lines tested, NC-17EX yielded comparably with released cultivars at 5074 pounds per acre and had one of the top grades at 69% TSMK. Contender was the top yielding cultivar at 5604 pounds per acre.
Table 5 contains Caddo County yield and grade data averaged for 2019 and 2020. Average yield among runner entries for the two-year period was 4165 pounds per are, while the average grade was 69% TSMK. Cultivar Lariat was the top yielder over the two-year period at 4781 pounds per acre. Statistical differences in yield and grade were seen among runner entries. Significant differences in yield were not found among all Spanish entries over the two years. Numerically, cultivar OLé was the top yielder among Spanish entries averaging 4008 pounds per acre. Statistical differences were reported for Spanish entry average grades over the two-year period. The average yield for Virginia entries in 2019-2020 was 4454 pounds per acre, but no statistical differences in yield were seen among entries. Breeding line NCEX17 was numerically the top yielder over years, averaging 4858 pounds per are. Cultivars ACI351 and Jupiter were the top yielding at 4792 and 4742 pounds per are, respectively. Statistical differences for average grade among Virginia-type entries were reported, with the average % TSMK reported at 66.
2020 Custer County Variety Trial
- Location: Les Crall Farms, Thomas
- Date Planted: 5/07/2020
- Date Dug: 10/05/2020
- Date Threshed: 10/08/2020
The trial was planted on May 7, 2020, into a conventional till seedbed and managed for weeds as well as foliar and soil-borne disease throughout the season. The average yield for the runner test (Table 2) was 4558 pounds per acre with an average grade of 68% TSMK. Statistical differences for yield and grade were reported. Numerically, entry Lariat was the top performer, averaging 5358 pounds per acre, followed by breeding line ARSOK R47A at 5379 pounds per acre. Cultivar Webb and breeding line ARSOK R91-2 were not statistically different from Lariat with respect to yield. Breeding line ARSOK 93-1 and Lariat had the top grades at 75 and 73% TSMK, respectively.
Table 2 shows no statistical differences for yield among Spanish entries, but grade differences were noted. The trial averaged 4154 pounds per acre and 68% TSMK. Cultivar Span17 topped the entries in yield and grade at 4586 pounds per acre, and breeding line ARSOK S88-2 had the highest grade at 70% TSMK.
Virginia entries averaged 4996 pounds per acre and a grade of 65% TSMK. Slight significant differences in yield were noted among entries. Cultivar ACI351 and breeding line NCEX17 and cultivar ACI351 had the highest yields at 5805 and 5676 pounds per acre, respectively, while the breeding line ARSOK V100-1 had the lowest at 4367 pounds per acre. Grade differences were significant among entries and ranged from 59% to 71% TSMK.
Table 6 contains 2019-2020 two-year averages in Custer County. Statistical differences were seen among runner entries for yield, with the average yield being 3893 pounds per acre. Among runner entries, Tamrun Lariat was numerically the highest in average yield at 4548 pounds per acre. Cultivar Georgia 14N had the lowest average yield over the two-year period at 3314 pounds per acre.
No significant differences were seen among Spanish entries over the two-year period where the average yield was 3592 pounds per acre and average grade was 66% TSMK. As is expected by small-seeded runner-type plants, yields were highest for cultivars AT98-99 and Span17, which averaged 3978 and 4029 pounds per acre, respectively. Cultivar Tamnut OL06 had the lowest average yield at 3205 pounds per acre.
No statistical differences were reported for Virginia-type entries in 2019-2020 for average yield (4330 pounds per acre). Slight differences in grade were seen among entries. Numerically, Contender was the top yielder at 4750 pounds per acre. Breeding line NCEX17 had the highest average grade for 2019-2020 at 69% TSMK.
2020 Love County Variety Trial
- Location: Anthony Reed Farms, Thackerville
- Date Planted: 5/28/2020
- Date Dug: 10/19/2020
- Date Threshed: 10/22/2020
The trial was planted relatively late on May 28, 2020, into a conventional till seedbed and managed for foliar and soil-borne disease throughout the season. Table 3 shows the 2020 yield and grade data from Love County. Statistical differences were seen among entries. Average yield and grade for the runner test was 4998 pounds per acre and 71% TSMK. Cultivar Lariat and breeding line ARSOK R47A had the top yields at 5,466 and 5777 pounds per acre, respectively. Breeding line ARSOK R93-1 had the top grade at 73% TSMK. With respect to yield, the ACI13321 was the poorest performer among cultivars at 4,411 pounds per acre.
Spanish entries performed well in Love County in 2020, with the average yield being 4304 pounds per acre and an average grade of 70% TSMK. Cultivar AT98-99 was the highest in yield at 4791 pounds per acre and a grade of 72%TMSK. Cultivar Schubert was poorest in yield at 3787 pounds per acre and a grade of 66%TMSK.
Average yield and grade in the Virginia-type test was 4869 pounds per acre and 63% TSMK. The top yielder was breeding line ARSOK V101-1 at 5653 pounds per acre and a grade of 67% TSMK. Grades of Virginia-type entries ranged from 54% to 68% TSMK, and statistical differences were found.
This was the first year to hold a variety trial in Love County, so no two-year average data could be calculated.
Performance Across Locations
Table 4 includes yield and grade data averaged across locations for 2020. Statistical differences for yield and grade were reported for all market types. Among the runner types tested, cultivars Lariat and breeding line ARSOK R47A were the top yielders, averaging 5,287 and 5,366 pounds per acre, respectively. The top yielding Spanish entry across locations was Span17 at 4,586 pounds per acre. Cultivar Schubert performed the worst across all locations in 2020, averaging 3,759 pounds per acre. Across locations in 2020, the top yielding Virginia-type cultivars were Contender, ACI351 and Jupiter. The top breeding lines were NCEX17 and ARSOK V101-1, averaging 5391 and 5159 pounds per acre, respectively.
Tables 5-7 show peanut yields and grades averaged across years (2019-2020) in Caddo county, Custer County and across the two locations in Oklahoma, along with estimated revenue for each entry. Averaged over years and across locations, the top performing runner entries was Lariat with a yield of 4667 pounds per acre. Georgia 14N averaged 3434 pounds per acre, making it the poorest performer overall. Among the Spanish entries, OLé was the top yielder (4037 pounds per acre), and statistical differences in performance were found among entries for yield or grade. Significant differences in yield were not found among Virginia entries across years and locations, but breeding line NCEX17 was numerically the highest yielder at 4694 pounds per acre. Among Virginia cultivars tested, Contender was numerically the top yielder across locations and years, averaging 4689 pounds per acre.
Pod Size Distribution
Pod size distribution is an essential factor in determining the market value of any Virginia cultivar. Most Virginia lines have larger than average pods, but a high percentage of the largest pods, termed “super jumbos,” makes a cultivar more valuable since Virginia cultivars are sold in-shell. Table 8 shows the pod size distribution of Virginia-type entries in the 2020 UPPT Caddo County location, as well as the Oklahoma Variety Trials.
For the 2020 Caddo County UPPT trial, breeding line NCEX17 had the highest number of super jumbo pods at 50.7% at 9.0 per ounce. When compared to a larger set of Virginia entries in the Oklahoma Peanut Variety trials, NCEX17 remained among the top performers, averaging 47.3% super jumbo pods at 10.1 per ounce. This percentage of super jumbo pods is significantly higher than cultivars Contender, Jupiter and VENUS. NCEX17 is an advanced breeding line that arose from selections made from a set of breeding populations screened through a joint effort between North Carolina State University and the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service in Stillwater for early maturity. Breeding line NCEX17 does have an enhanced percentage of super jumbo pods and is approximately seven days earlier in maturity than most other cultivars. NCEX17 has been chosen as a potential joint cultivar release for the Southwestern U.S. in 2021. Future possible Virginia cultivar releases are listed among the 2020 variety trial entries, and several breeding lines also had notably high super jumbo pod composition, ranging from 22% to 59%. Selections from those breeding lines will be made and moved forward for further analysis in future years.
Special thanks to Lisa Myers and Angie Harting for technical support and to Bobby Weidenmaier, Harley Houston and Brennan Leighton at the Caddo Research Station for location support. Thanks also to farmer cooperators Les Crall and Anthony Reed. This research is supported by USDA-ARS CRIS Project No. 3072-21220-007-00D, the Oklahoma Peanut Commission and National Peanut Board, as well as the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA, which is an equal opportunity provider and employer.