2022 Oklahoma Peanut Variety Trials
2022 Progress Made Possible Through Oklahoma Peanut Commission and National Peanut Board Support
- The performance of runner varied, but averages across locations in 2022 indicated that cultivar Lariat was the top entry in value per acre.
- The small-seeded runner-type cultivars AT98-99 and Span17 were the leaders in value per acre among the Spanish trial entries.
- Significant differences were noted in Virginia entry yields across locations and years. Cultivars Contender and Comrade were consistently top performers for value per acre among those currently grown.
Peanut production in Oklahoma is generally located in three geographical regions across the state: southwestern, west central and far west. Each region differs from the others in environmental and biological stressors that affect crop production, so the same peanut cultivar will likely perform differently in each growing region. Therefore, the Oklahoma Peanut Variety Trials are conducted in each region annually and are designed to test the performance of commonly grown cultivars and potential cultivar releases against each other. The 2022 growing season was unusually hot with temperatures above 100 F for much of July without any rainfall or relief. Consequently, much of the peanut crop in the state slowed in development, resulting in an obvious split crop and delayed maturing. Results of these annual trials can serve as a guide for producers when choosing a cultivar to plant.
Variety Trial Methods
All entries (cultivars and advanced breeding lines) in the Oklahoma Peanut Variety Trials were high-oleic with the exception of the Virginia-type cultivar Jupiter. The following entries were included in all locations in 2022:
- 16 runner-types: cultivars ACI080, ACI476, ACI3321 and Lariat, and breeding lines ARSOK R90-12, ARSOK R91-2, ARSOK R92-13, ARSOK R93-1, ARSOK R93-10, ARSOK 95-1, ARSOK R96-7, ARSOK R96-8, ARSOK R106-1L, ARSOK R106-9L, ARSOK R107-2L and ARSOK R109-1L
- 12 Spanish-types: cultivars AT98-99, OLé, Tamnut OL06, Schubert and Span17, and breeding lines ARSOK S88-2, ARSOK S96-5, ARSOK S104-2E, ARSOK S104-3E, ARSOK S105-2E, ARSOK S105-3E and ARSOK S105-4E
- 12 Virginia types: cultivars Comrade, Contender and Jupiter, and breeding lines ARSOK V-98, ARSOK V99, ARSOK V100-1, ARSOK V100-2, ARSOK V101-1, ARSOK V103-1, ARSOK V103-3, ARSOK V103-4 and ARSOK V103-5.
All variety trials were conducted under an extensive pest management program. The objective was to prevent as much outside influence from pest pressures (weeds, disease and insects) on yield and grade as possible. The interaction between variety and location was significant, so the results were separated by location. Averages across locations and years were included to give producers a better estimate of line performance. Since the varieties and advanced lines responses differed by location, growers may find the data for the county closest to their location to be the most useful in selecting a variety or varieties to grow. All test plots were planted using two 36-inch rows that were 15 feet long. Plots were seeded at a rate of 5 seeds/row foot (139,392 seeds/A). Trials were conducted using randomized, complete block design with four replications. The entire plot was dug and then thrashed two to three days later. Peanuts were placed in a dryer until moisture reached 10%. Percent total sound mature kernels (% TSMK) were determined on a 200-gram sample from each plot.
Analysis of variance procedures were used to assess the effect of variety on the multiple response variables. SAS Version 9.4 (PROC MIXED) was used to conduct the analysis. A randomized complete block design was used, and block is specified as a random effect in the model. Post-hoc comparisons using Tukey adjustments are reported when the overall variety effect is significant in the analysis of variance. Two means reported with the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level.
Means for all observations were calculated for each entry and for the overall trial. If a given variety out-yields another variety by as much or more than the standard error value, then we are 95% sure the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability the difference is due to chance alone. Results reported here should be representative of what might occur throughout the state but would be most applicable under environmental management conditions similar to those of the trials. The relative yields of all peanut varieties are affected by crop management and environmental factors, including soil type, summer conditions, soil moisture, disease and insects.
Value/acre was determined by converting estimated plot yields to tons/acre and using the 2022 contract price values for each market-type ($675 for runner types; $700 for Spanish and Virgina types). No adjustments were made for damaged kernels or concealed damage. Virginia $/A values may be underestimated as grade is not as large a factor for in-shell peanuts and the extra-large kernels (ELK) bonus was not added in the final value/annual figure. Calculations of $/A are based on yield and grade only and do not include possible input costs. The following formula was used: $/A = yield (tons/A)*contract price ($/ton)*grade.
2022 Caddo County Variety Trial
Location: Fort Cobb, Oklahoma
Date Planted: May 3, 2022
Date Dug: Oct. 17, 2022
Date Threshed: Oct. 20, 2022
The trial was planted on May 3, 2022. A conventional till seedbed was used and managed for foliar and soil-borne disease throughout the season. Average yield for the runner test was 5,677 lbs/A and average grade was 64% TSMK (Table 1). In general, grades were lower than normal, most likely due to the extremely hot summer. Entries ACI080, ACI476, Lariat and several breeding lines had higher yields compared to other genotypes tested. Despite the extreme heat experienced in the 2022 growing season, yields were higher for most entries than in recent past years.
Among the Spanish entries tested, the average yield and grade were 5,012 lbs/A and 62% TSMK, respectively. In Caddo County, statistical differences among entries were reported for yield, with Span17 and AT98-99 (small-seeded runner types) topping the trial at 6,359 and 5,652 lbs./A, respectively. The true Spanish-type cultivar OLé yielded 5,231 lbs/A with a grade of 65% TSMK. Overall grades were lower, averaging only 62% TSMK.
Entries in the Virginia test averaged 5,974 lbs/A with an average grade of 62% TSMK. Statistical differences were reported for yield and grade. Comrade was the top yielder at 6,549 lbs/A, but it was statistically indistinguishable from Contender at 6,252 lbs./A. Breeding lines ARSOK V1002 and ARSOK V101-1 topped the experimental line yields at 6,291 and 6,031 lbs/A, respectively. Grades were lower than in past years as in the runner and Spanish trials.
Table 5 contains Caddo County yield and grade data averaged across 2021-2022 for the Caddo and Custer County trials only. No trial was conducted in Tillman County in 2021. Average yield among runner entries for the two-year period was 5,359 lbs/A, and the average grade was 67% TSMK. Significant differences in yield were reported for runner entries over the two-year period. For Spanish entries, significant differences in yield were also reported over the two years. As expected, the small-seeded runner cultivars AT98-99 and Span17 were the top yielders, averaging 5,358 and 5,680 lbs/A. Cultivars OLé and Schubert averaged 4,801 and 4,672 lbs/A. The average yield for Virginia entries in 2021-2022 was 5,165 lbs/A, and statistical differences in yield were seen among entries. The top yielding cultivars were Contender, Jupiter and Comrade at 5,796, 5,595, and 5,439 lbs/A. Several breeding lines were not statistically different from the best performing cultivars with respect to yield, grade and seed size.
2022 Custer County Variety Trial
Location: Thomas (Les Crall Farms)
Date Planted: May 10, 2022
Date Dug: Oct. 14, 2022
Date Threshed: Oct. 17, 2022
The trial was planted on May 10, 2022, into a conventional till seedbed and managed for weeds as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases throughout the season. Yields and grades for the Custer County trial were lower than in previous years. The average yield for the runner test (Table 2) was 3,608 lbs/A with an average grade of 64% TSMK. Statistical differences for yield and grade were reported, but the top yielding cultivar was Lariat at 4,472 lbs/A. Seed sizes were also diminished compared to previous years, most likely due to the extreme heat and drought experienced during the growing season.
Similar effects were seen in the Custer County Spanish trial. Among Spanish entries, small-seeded runner cultivar Span17 was the top yielder at 4,086 lbs/A. The trial averaged 2,907 lbs/A and 64% TSMK.
Virginia entries averaged 3,810 lbs/A and a grade of 61% TSMK, which was much lower than in previous years. Slight significant differences in yield were noted among entries. Cultivar Comrade and breeding line ARSOK V101-1 had the highest yields at 4,511 and 4,464 lbs/A.
Table 6 contains 2021-2022 two-year averages in Custer County. Statistical differences were seen among runner entries for yield with the average yield being 4,667 lbs/A. and the average grade being 68% TSMK. Among runner entries, cultivar Lariat was the highest in average yield at 5,293 lbs/A. Breeding line ARSOK R96-8 had the lowest average yield over the two-year period at 3,937 lbs/A.
Significant differences were seen among Spanish over the two-year period where the average yield was 3,736 lbs/A and average grade was 65% TSMK. As is expected by small-seeded runner type plants, yields were highest for cultivars AT98-99 and Span17, which averaged 4,784 and 4,648 lbs/A. Cultivar Tamnut OL06 had the lowest average yield at 3,125 lb/A.
Statistical differences were also reported for Virginia-type entries in 2021-2022 for average yield, which was 4,503 lbs/A for the trial period. Differences in grade were also among entries, averaging 64% TSMK. Cultivars Jupiter, Comrade and Contender were the top yielders at 501, 4,812, and 4,738 lbs/A. The top-yielding breeding line was ARSOK V101-1 at 5,192 lbs/A.
2022 Tillman County Variety Trial
Location: Davidson (Joe D. White Farms)
Date Planted: May 13, 2022
Date Dug: Oct. 21, 2022
Date Threshed: Oct. 26, 2022
The trial was planted on May 13, 2022, into a conventional till seedbed and managed for foliar and soil-borne diseases throughout the season. Table 3 shows the 2022 yield and grade data from Tillman County. Overall, yields were exceptionally high considering the stress of the growing season. Statistical differences were seen among entries. Average yield and grade for the runner test was 6,956 lbs/A and 72% TSMK. ACI476 had the highest yield among cultivars tested in the trial at 8,572 lbs/A, while ARSOK R95-1 was the best yielder among breeding lines at 7,479 lbs/A.
Spanish entry performance was also well above normal in Tillman County for 2022 with the average yield being 6,384 lbs/A and an average grade of 70% TSMK. Cultivar AT98-99 was the highest in yield at 7,285 lbs/A and a grade of 73% TMSK. Among the breeding lines, ARSOK S104-3E and ARSOK S105-3E were highest in yield, both at approximately 6,527 lbs/A and a grade of 68% TMSK.
Average yield and grade in the Virginia-type test were extremely above average at 6,539 lbs/A and 71% TSMK. The top yielder was breeding line ARSOK V101-1 at 7,878 lbs/A and a grade of 69% TSMK. Breeding line ARSOK V98 was the poorest performer in this trial but still averaged 5,428 lbs/A and a grade of 70% TSMK. Since no trial was held in Tillman County in 2021, a two-year average comparison is not available.
Performance Across Locations
Table 4 includes Oklahoma Variety Trials yield and grade data averaged across locations for 2022. Statistical differences for yield were reported for all market types. Among the runner-types tested, cultivars ACI476 and Lariat had the highest yields at 5,092 and 5,880 lbs/A. Yields were similar when compared to years past despite the extreme weather experienced in 2022. Average grades dipped slightly compared to years past (66% TSMK in 2022 compared to 69% in 2021). The top average yielding Spanish entry across locations was Span17 at 5,830 lbs/A. Cultivars Tamnut OL06 and Schubert performed poorest with average yields of 4,205 and 4,231 lbs/A. Across locations, the Virginia-type cultivars performed similarly. The top breeding line was ARSOK V101-1, which averaged 6,214 lbs/A.
Table 7 shows results from the Oklahoma Peanut Variety Trials averaged across locations (Caddo and Custer counties) for over two years (2021-2022). Averaged over years and across locations, the runner cultivars tested were not significantly different. The mean yield for runner-type entries was 4,969 lbs/A. For all runner-type breeding lines tested, yields ranged from 4,359 lbs/A (ARSOK R93-10) to 5,274 lbs/A (ARSOK R109-1L). Among the Spanish entries, the mean yield was 4,128 lbs/A with the small-seeded runner-types AT98-99 and Span17 yielding the highest at 5,071 and 5,164 lbs/A. The poorest average yield for Spanish entries was that for Tamnut OL06 at 3,601 lbs/A. Significant differences in yield were found among Virginia entries across years and locations with the mean yield being 4,854 lbs/A. Among cultivar entries, no significant differences were observed. Breeding line ARSOK V101-1 had the highest yield of the trial numerically at 5,326 lbs/A.
This report is dedicated to United States Department of Agriculture- Agricultural Research Service Biological Research Technician Lisa Myers, who devoted 23 years of her professional life to the Stillwater USDA-ARS peanut breeding program. Her friendship and support will be sorely missed. Special thanks to Angie Harting for technical support and to Bobby Weidenmaier, Harley Houston and Brennan Leighton at the Caddo Research Station for location support. Thanks also to farmer cooperators Les Crall and Joe D. White.
This research is supported by USDA-ARS Current Research Information System (CRIS) Project No. 3072-21220-007-00D, the Oklahoma Peanut Commission and the National Peanut Board as well as OSU Ag Research. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.